Friday, 12 July 2013


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Campinas —  Municipality  — The Municipality of Campinas Images from top, left to right: Metropolitan Cathedral, an avenue in Campinas's downtown, an old railway station, Mogiana Palace, a monument to the heroes of Constitutionalist Revolution (in Saudade Cemetery), a bus terminus, Central area of Campinas as seen from Torre do Castelo, a belvedere. Flag Seal Nickname(s): Cidade das Andorinhas, Brazilian Silicon Valley, Princesa d'Oeste Location of Campinas Campinas Location in Brazil Coordinates: 22°54′3″S 47°03′26″W / 22.90083°S 47.05722°W / -22.90083; -47.05722 Country  Brazil Region Southeast State São Paulo Founded July 14, 1774 Government  • Mayor Jonas Donizette (PSB) Area  • Municipality 795.667 km2 (307.209 sq mi)  • Metro 3,645 km2 (1,407 sq mi) Elevation 555-780 m (1,821–2,559 ft) Population (2012)  • Municipality 1,098,630 (14th)  • Density 1,358.6/km2 (3,519/sq mi)  • Metro 2,633,523 Time zone Brasilia Official Time (UTC-3)  • Summer (DST) Brazilian Daylight Saving Time (UTC-2) Postal Code 13000-000 Area code(s) +55 19 Website Campinas, São Paulo

Campinas (Portuguese pronunciation: , Plains) is a Brazilian city of São Paulo State, in the country's Southeast Region. According to the 2010 Census, the city population is 1,080,999, making it the fourteenth most populous Brazilian city and the third in the São Paulo state. The city's metropolitan area, the Greater Campinas, as of 2013, contains nineteen cities, including Campinas, and has a total population of 2,832,297 people.

The city is home to the University of Campinas, one of the most prestigious in Latin America.


Campinas means grass fields in Portuguese and refers to its characteristic landscape, which originally comprised large stretches of dense subtropical forests (mato grosso or thick woods in Portuguese), mainly along the many rivers, interspersed with gently rolling hills covered by low-lying vegetation.

Campinas was also known as "Cidade das Andorinhas" (City of Swallows), because it was a favorite spot for these migratory birds, which flocked annually in enormous numbers to downtown Campinas. However, they almost disappeared around the 1950s, probably because the church and plaza where they used to roost were torn down. Campinas' official crest and flag has a picture of the mythical bird, the phoenix, because it was practically reborn after a devastating epidemic of yellow fever in the 1800s, which killed more than 25% of the city's inhabitants.

The demonym for Campinas is a campineiro.


Campinas in 1878 Maps of railways in Campinas in 1929

The city was founded on July 14, 1774, by Barreto Leme. It was initially a simple outpost on the way to Minas Gerais and Goiás serving the "Bandeirantes" who were in search of precious minerals and Indian slaves. In the first half of the 19th century, Campinas became a growing population center, with many coffee, cotton and sugarcane farms.

The construction of a railway linking the city of São Paulo to Santos' seaport, in 1867, was very important for its growth. In the second half of the 19th century, with the abolition of slavery, farming and industrialization attracted many foreign immigrants to replace the lost manpower, mainly from Italy.

Coffee became an important export and the city became wealthy. In consequence, a large service sector was established to serve the growing population, and in the first decades of the 20th century, Campinas could already boast of an opera house, theaters, banks, movie theaters, radio stations, a philharmonic orchestra, two newspapers (Correio Popular and Diário do Povo), a good public education system (with the Escola Normal de Campinas and the Colégio Culto à Ciência), and hospitals, such as the Santa Casa de Misericórdia (a charity for poor people) and the Casa de Saúde de Campinas (for the Italian community, formerly known as Circolo Italiani Uniti), and the most important Brazilian research center in agricultural sciences, the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, which was founded by Emperor Pedro II. Finally, the construction of the first Brazilian highway in 1938, between Campinas and São Paulo, the Anhanguera Highway, was a turning point in the integration of Campinas into the rest of the state.

Campinas was the birthplace of opera composer Carlos Gomes (1836 — 1896) and of the President of the Republic Campos Salles (1841 — 1913). It was home for 49 years to Hércules Florence, reputed as one of the early inventors of photography, photocopying and the mimeograph.


The area of the city, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, is 795.697 km2, and 238.3230 km2 are the urban and 557.334 km2 remaining constitute the countryside. It is located at 22°54′21″S, 47°03′39″W and is at a distance of 96 kilometers northwest of São Paulo. Its neighboring cities are Paulínia, Jaguariúna and Pedreira, north; Morungaba, Itatiba and Valinhos in the east; Itupeva, Indaiatuba and Monte Mor, south, and Hortolândia in the west.


Most of the original vegetation that had in the city, the Atlantic, was devastated. Like other 13 municipalities in the metropolitan region of Campinas, the city suffers a severe environmental stress, and Campinas is considered one of the areas subject to flooding and silting and has less than 5% of vegetation cover.

To try to reverse this situation, several projects have been and are being conducted and planned, such as building corridors, such as regulation of the Management Plan of Environmental Preservation Area (APA) in Campinas. There are also several environmental projects to combat the destruction of riparian forests located on the river london, which, as previously mentioned, has a high rate of pollution of its waters. Today Campinas houses the Area of Relevant Ecological Interest (ARIE) Santa Geneva, 251 acres (1.02 km2), established in 1985 and regulated by the Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), the city of Campinas, Fundação José Pedro de Oliveira. Today is the second largest urban forest of Brazil, behind only the Forest of Tijuca, in Rio de Janeiro.

The city also has large forests, such as Jequitibás Wood (installed in 1881), Forest Grove and the Germans of Guarantees.

Climate View Campinas during a storm.

The climate is tropical but mitigated by elevation (Köppen type Cwa), with lower rainfall in winter and annual average temperature of 22.4 °C, with dry and mild winters (rarely too cold) and rainy summers with warm to hot temperatures. The warmest month in February, has an average temperature of 24.9 °C, with an average maximum of 30.0 °C and minimum 19.9 °C. And the coldest month, July, 18.5 °C and 24.8 °C and 12.3 °C average maximum and minimum, respectively. Fall and spring are transitional seasons.

The average annual rainfall is 1424.5 mm and the driest month in August, when there are only 22.9 mm. In January, the rainiest month, the average is 280.3 mm. In recent years, however, the hot, dry days during the winter have been increasingly frequent, often surpassing 30 °C, especially between July and September. In August 2010, for example, the rainfall in Campinas was only 0 mm. During the dry season and long dry spells in the middle of the rainy season are also common records of fires in the hills and thickets, especially in rural areas of the city, which contributes to deforestation and the release of pollutants into the atmosphere, further damaging the quality air. The lowest temperature recorded in the city was −1.5 °C on June 25, 1918. The highest temperature was 39.0 °C, observed on 17 November 1985. The highest cumulative rainfall recorded in 24 hours in the city between June 1988 and October 2008 was 143.4 mm in 25 days May 2005. Between 1890 and 2004 there were 41 occurrences of frost in Campinas. The most recent was on July 18, 2000, when the minimum temperature reached 2.2 °C. There are also occasional episodes of strong winds, with gusts exceeding 100 km / h, and training records were made in the city day May 4, 2001 and March 9, 2008.

The wet season is from mid-October to mid-April, with heavier rains particularly in December, January, February and early March, and the dry season is from mid-May to mid-September. Average rainfall is 24.3 mm in August and 267.8 mm in January. Average humidity ranges from 37% (August) to 56% (January).

In the region around Campinas near the state of Minas Gerais there are a number of cities which enjoy an even milder mountain climate, such as Serra Negra, Socorro, Lindóia and Águas de Lindóia, where several water spas are located.

Climate data for Campinas, Brazil (1890–2012) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 36.1 (97) 35.8 (96.4) 34.5 (94.1) 33.6 (92.5) 32.4 (90.3) 30.0 (86) 31.2 (88.2) 35.0 (95) 37.8 (100) 37.8 (100) 37.8 (100) 36.8 (98.2) 37.8 (100) Average high °C (°F) 28.9 (84) 29.1 (84.4) 28.7 (83.7) 27.2 (81) 25.0 (77) 24.0 (75.2) 24.2 (75.6) 26.1 (79) 27.0 (80.6) 27.8 (82) 28.3 (82.9) 28.4 (83.1) 27.1 (80.8) Average low °C (°F) 18.6 (65.5) 19.0 (66.2) 18.2 (64.8) 16.2 (61.2) 13.6 (56.5) 12.0 (53.6) 11.4 (52.5) 12.6 (54.7) 14.4 (57.9) 15.9 (60.6) 16.9 (62.4) 18.0 (64.4) 15.5 (59.9) Record low °C (°F) 10.1 (50.2) 10.4 (50.7) 10.0 (50) 3.8 (38.8) 0.2 (32.4) −1.5 (29.3) −0.2 (31.6) 0.2 (32.4) 1.8 (35.2) 5.2 (41.4) 8.0 (46.4) 9.5 (49.1) −1.5 (29.3) Precipitation mm (inches) 280.3 (11.035) 215.9 (8.5) 162.3 (6.39) 58.6 (2.307) 63.3 (2.492) 35.4 (1.394) 43.3 (1.705) 22.9 (0.902) 59.5 (2.343) 123.5 (4.862) 155.6 (6.126) 203.9 (8.028) 1,424.5 (56.083)  % humidity 57 54 50 47 46 43 41 36 43 46 49 54 47 Source: IAC - Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (Temperaturas) / CEPAGRI-UNICAMP (Outros dados)


"Coronel Quirino" Street in the upper-class residential area of the Cambuí district Luxury condos at Cambuí, a wealthy neighbourhood of Campinas Mormon Temple in Campinas

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, and as November 2010, Campinas had a population of 1,080,999 and a population density of 1358.6 (inhabitants / km ²). Infant mortality levels were at up to 1 year (per thousand): 14.05 and life expectation in the city was 72.22 years. The fertility rate was at 1.78 children per woman. 96.01 of the populace could read.

Human Development Index (HDI-M): 0.852 (high) HDI-M Income: 0.845 (high) HDI-M Longevity: 0.787 HDI-M Education: 0.925 (very high)

(Source: DATA)


Source: 2000 census:

Color / Race  % White 74.0% Black 5.6% Pardo 18.4% Asian 0.9% Indigenous 0.2% Composition

Source: 2010 Census Population (IBGE): 1,080,999

Population  % / inhabitants Urban area 98,28% / 1,062,453 Rural area 1,72% / 18,546 Sex  % / inhabitants Male 48,22% / 521,209 Female 51,78% / 559,790 Metropolitan region Administrative micro-region of Campinas. The outlying municipality names in red are also part of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas. Metropolitan Region of Campinas.

As of 2010, Campinas became an official metropolitan region (RMC — Região Metropolitana de Campinas), with 19 municipalities, with a total of 2.8 million inhabitants and a total land area of 3,348 km² (data of 2010), adjacent to the São Paulo metropolitan region (RMSP). The Campinas Metropolitan area also comprehends a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of R$ 70.7 billion (around U$ 42 billion).

Americana Artur Nogueira Cosmópolis Engenheiro Coelho Holambra Hortolândia Indaiatuba Itatiba Jaguariúna Monte Mor Nova Odessa Paulínia Pedreira Santa Bárbara d'Oeste Santo Antônio de Posse Sumaré Valinhos Vinhedo

The Campinas municipality is also the administrative center of the micro- and meso-regions of the same name. The micro-region includes the RMC (Metropolitan Region of Campinas) and the municipality of Elias Fausto; the meso-region also includes the following municipalities: Aguaí, Amparo, Águas da Prata, Águas de Lindóia, Caconde, Casa Branca, Divinolândia, Espírito Santo do Pinhal, Estiva Gerbi, Itapira, Itobi, Lindóia, Mococa, Mogi Guaçu, Moji-Mirim, Monte Alegre do Sul, Pedra Bela, Pinhalzinho, Pirassununga, Porto Ferreira, Santa Cruz das Palmeiras, Santo Antônio do Jardim, São João da Boa Vista, São José do Rio Pardo, São Sebastião da Grama, Serra Negra, Socorro, Tambaú, Tapiratiba, Vargem Grande do Sul and Vinhedo.

Other cities which are geographically, historically or economically tied to the meso-region of Campinas could be mentioned: Araras, Atibaia, Bragança Paulista, Capivari, Conchal, Iracemápolis, Itu, Itupeva, Jarinu, Jundiai, Limeira, Louveira, Mombuca, Morungaba, Piracicaba, Rafard, Rio das Pedras, Salto and Tuiuti.

Campinas city view


See also: List of companies in Campinas José de Souza Campos Avenue (Most commonly known as North-South Avenue).

Campinas is the richest city in the metropolitan region of Campinas and the 10th richest city in Brazil, showing a gross domestic product (GDP) of 27.1 billion reais (2007), which represents 0.96% of all Brazilian GDP. Currently, the city concentrates around one third of industrial production of São Paulo state. The paper highlights the high-tech industries and metallurgical park, considered the capital of Silicon Valley Sterling.

The region hosts more than 10,000 medium and large companies, many of which are among the 1,000 largest and best in Brazil

The petrochemical complex is centered in Southeastern, a few miles of Campinas, near the refinery of Petrobras Planalto Paulista (Replan), the largest in Brazil one of the largest in Latin America, and has companies like Dupont, Chevron, Shell, Exxon, Group Ipiranga, Eucatex, Rhodia, and others. It has the largest cargo airport of import / export, and is the hub of companies and Blue Trip. The largest companies have a global turnover of more than $ 80 billion, larger than many Latin American countries.

The city is also an important and diverse shopping, owning two of the largest shopping mall in the country: The Iguatemi Campinas and Shopping Parque Dom Pedro. It will be also located Parque das Bandeiras Shopping that will be on the periphery of the city. Together, Shopping Parque Dom Pedro and Shopping Iguatemi, it will be one of the largest malls in the city. Has, in its metropolitan area, the Viracopos International Airport, which stands in the international transport of cargo.

Campinas' main economic activities are agriculture (mainly coffee, sugarcane, and cotton), industry (textiles, motorcycles, cars, machinery, agricultural equipment, food and beverages, chemical and petrochemical, pharmaceuticals, paper and cellulose, telecommunications, computers and electronics, etc.), commerce and services.

Downtown Campinas.

The Campinas Metropolitan Region is home to many national and international high-tech industries, including IBM, Dell, Motorola, Freescale, Lucent, Nortel, Compaq, Celestica, Samsung, Alcatel, Bosch, 3M, Texas Instruments.

The airline TRIP Linhas Aéreas is headquartered in Campinas. The Viracopos airport is also the operational hub of Azul Airlines.

The automotive industry is also heavily represented: General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, Honda, Magneti Marelli, Eaton Corporation, Tenneco, Toyota and many others are present. It also has a sizable pharmaceutical industry sector, with companies like Medley Farma, EMS Farma, Altana, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Cristália, Valeo, etc.

In addition the region is home to many research centers and universities, such as LNLS, CPqD, CenPRA, Embrapa, Unicamp, Facamp and Puccamp. According to the Times Higher Education 2007 World University Rankings, the University of Campinas (Unicamp) is the 177th best university in the world, and the 2nd best in Latin America (after the University of São Paulo in 176th place).

View of Downtown Campinas at night.

Campinas also boasts the largest number of high-tech business incubators and industrial parks (a total of eight), such as the CIATEC I and II, Softex, TechnoPark, InCamp, Polis, TechTown, Industrial Park of Campinas and others.

The presence of one of the largest oil refineries in Latin America (350,824 barrels (55,776.6 m3) of crude per day), operated by Petrobras in the neighboring county of Paulínia, has attracted many petrochemical companies to the Campinas area, including DuPont, Rhone-Poulenc, and Royal Dutch Shell.

The Brazilian Pró-Álcool Program was developed in Campinas: a whole industry based on the use of ethanol as a combustible for motor vehicles, going from a new sucrose-rich sugarcane, to alcohol refineries, a huge distribution system, and, most recently, an internal combustion engine capable of using either gasoline or ethanol.

Other examples of Campinas-bred technologies are fiber optics, lasers for telecommunications and medical applications, integrated circuits design and fabrication, satellite environmental monitoring of natural resources, software for agriculture, digital telephone switches, deep-water oil exploration platforms and technologies, biomedical equipment, medical software, genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technologies for food production and pharmaceutics, and food engineering. Because of this, Campinas has been called the Brazilian Silicon Valley.

Socio-economic conditions Low-cost apartments under construction.

Despite Campinas' position of wealth and social and economic opportunity vis-a-vis the rest of the country, the average per capita income of little more than US$ 17,700 per year clearly indicates that there are problems. If re-evaluated in terms of PPP (Purchasing Power Parity), Campinas' average income looks better (roughly 12,300 USD per year).


The city has always been a cultural center in the State of São Paulo. This has increased greatly with the proliferation of universities. Campinas has three theater houses, a symphony orchestra, (considered one of the three best of the country), now under Principal Conductor Parcival Módolo and Karl Martin, classical music ensembles, choral groups, 43 movie screens and over a dozen cinemas, dozens of libraries (including a municipal library), art galleries, museums, etc.